Everyone has to deal with copyright. As a student, when you create a paper and list the sources used; as a lecturer when you want to post materials on the ELO and are not sure if that is allowed; or as a researcher when you want to publish an article.
On this website, we provide information on copyright, citations and source citations according to APA, publishing and plagiarism.
If you have a question that you were unable to find an answer to, or if you would like personal advice, please send an e-mail to our mailbox(opens in new tab). We will then contact you as soon as possible.
Copyright, what was that again?
Copyright is the exclusive right of the creator of an original work to publish and reproduce that work.
In plain language, this means that the creator of a text, photo or other work determines what may happen to that work and that others need permission from the creator if they want to use it.
Using materials in the ELO - Easy Access Agreement
Books, articles, reports and all other texts written by others are protected by copyright and cannot be used without the permission of the publisher (or author). However, a buy-out arrangement has been made for so-called medium-length transfers, parts of books and journals that may be used for educational purposes. This amounts to a maximum of 50 pages from books and a maximum of 50 pages from journals.
You may not use more than 25% (a quarter) of the book or journal, even if it is less than 50 pages, but as long as you stay within the limit of 50 pages or a quarter of the book/journal you do not have to arrange anything else.
The above only applies if the material was created by others. If you have written the texts yourself, or if the author/publisher has given written permission for use, you can use as much as you like. The latter category includes articles and books published as Open Access (where the author gives permission for use in advance through a licence agreement) but also most articles from the Mediacentrum databases.
Do you need more than 50 pages from a book? Then you can and must register these acquisitions via the Copyright Information Point. Any costs for this will be charged to your study programme. The exact procedure is still being drawn up in consultation with Stichting UvO and will then be communicated via this website, among other channels.
Do you doubt whether you can use a certain book, article or report? Or do you want to use more than a 50-page takeover? Mail to the Copyright Information Point mailbox(opens in new tab) and together we will look at the possibilities.
Using images in the ELO and PowerPoints
The use of photos, drawings and images in (PowerPoint) presentations is also covered by the Easy Access buy-out arrangement.
PowerPoint presentations may contain up to 50 photos, images or other types of visual material for which permission is not required. A maximum of 10 photos may originate from the same creator, and a maximum of 25 photos may be taken from the same work (e.g. from one book). From 51 images, permission must be requested from the image creator.
An attribution, consisting of the location of the photo or image and the name of the author, must be included in the PowerPoint presentation. This can be done alongside the photo, as a footnote on the relevant slide or bundled on a separate slide at the beginning or end of the presentation.
Photos taken from the internet usually do not include a reference to the source, which makes it difficult to name the original creator or source in a presentation. The Mediacentrum offers access to the Britannica Image Quest(opens in new tab) photo database, which contains millions of photos that may be used in presentations and other contexts, and for each photo an acknowledgement of source (according to APA guidelines) can be found which can immediately be copied and pasted into a presentation.
The limit of 50 does not apply to photos from Britannica Image Quest, because permission has been obtained in advance.
Do you doubt whether you can use certain photos, drawings or images in the ELO or in a presentation? Mail to the AIP mailbox(opens in new tab) and we will be happy to look into it with you.
Using video's in education
Various copyright issues also arise when videos are used in classrooms or the ELO.
Showing videos in or outside the classroom
Videos (and other visual materials) are also protected by copyright. However, there is an exception in the Copyright Act for the use of video in classrooms. This means that videos may be shown 'within the walls of a classroom' without any restrictions.
Please note: this applies to showing video on a TV or other screen during the lesson, and not to uploading digital video files to the ELO.
The universities of applied sciences have also entered into a buy-out arrangement with the copyright organisation Videma, as a result of which videos may also be freely shown outside the classrooms. As long as the video or film is shown within the walls of Windesheim - and no entrance fee is charged for such a screening - this falls within the regulation. Films and videos can therefore be shown during open days or organised educational activities.
Do you doubt whether you can show a video or film at Windesheim? Mail to the AIP mailbox(opens in new tab), and together we will look at the possibilities.
Posting other creator's videos on the Mediaportal
Videos almost always have more than one copyright holder. Producers, directors and production companies all have copyrights and therefore determine what can happen to these videos. If you want to use (parts of) TV programmes, documentaries, films and other video material and place this on the Mediaportal, you will need explicit permission from (all) rights holders.
This is almost impossible to arrange in practice and therefore such programmes and videos may not be uploaded to the Mediaportal. If you do want to make use of this video material, please contact the Copyright Information Point and together we will look at the possibilities. Broadcasts and documentaries are often available via NPO Start(opens in new tab), Beeld en Geluid op School(opens in new tab) or another source.
Are you unsure whether you can place a video on the Mediaportal? Mail to the AIP mailbox(opens in new tab) and together we will look at the possibilities.
Creating and placing your own videos on the Mediaportal
More and more often, Windesheim teachers make their own video material for educational purposes. For example: knowledge clips, explainers, or registrations of lectures that can be viewed later by students.
The copyright of self-made video productions lies with Windesheim, and no further permission is needed to upload these videos to the Mediaportal.
However, there are still copyright issues to consider with these video productions. When making a recording of a lecture, attention should be paid to not showing any material to which Windesheim does not own the rights. For instance, if music is played - or a film is shown - during the lesson that is being recorded.
Are you making a video yourself? Then also pay attention to the portrait rights of students or other people in the video. Although they cannot prohibit being recorded, it is better to make it clear that recordings are being made and what they will be used for. The choice of whether or not to be (recognisably) in the picture is up to them.
Do you have questions about the copyright of self-made videos? Mail to the AIP mailbox(opens in new tab) and together we will look at the possibilities.
For the (re-)use of sound fragments, permission must be arranged. In the Netherlands, this is done via Buma-Stemra.
It is best to use background music for which no additional permission is required. This can be the 'library music' that Buma Stemra facilitates, but there are also various sites with freely available music that are convenient (and therefore quick). Examples are the YouTube Audio Library(opens in new tab), CCMixter(opens in new tab) or the Open Music Archive(opens in new tab).
Digital educational resources
Copyright often applies to (digital) educational resources. Examples of educational resources are articles, images, videos, or (parts of) a book or journal. For this reason, educational institutions have often made special arrangements with the copyright holders regarding the use/reuse of these materials within the educational context. If this is not the case, you can usually still make use of copyright-protected materials for a reasonable fee. Below, you will find all of the rules regarding the use/reuse of educational resources (digital or otherwise) and copyright.
Open educational resources
Do you want to publish educational resources or teaching materials? Then read below what you need to consider to avoid any violation of the creator’s copyright.
A weblecture is a recording of a presentation, a lecture, a seminar or a workshop that you can watch on-line afterwards. The guide below specifies the elements you must take into account if you want to produce or publish a web lecture in terms of copyright.
If a work has a Creative Commons licence, you can see immediately under which conditions you can use it without asking permission. More information can be found at www.creativecommons.org(opens in new tab).
On this website, you can also find information on how to apply for a CC licence yourself.
You can also search for works under a CC licence at search.creativecommons.org(opens in new tab) so that you know immediately whether you can reuse the works found.
- Copyright, what was that again?
Copyright, what was that again?
Copyright during your studies
Not all information you find on the Internet can be used for your assignments. For each publication, you must find out what the author permits.
You can search specifically for texts, images and videos for which the creator has already indicated what you may do with them. This has been arranged in advance for so called Open Access or Creative Commons resources.
During your studies, you are permitted to use publications for which Windesheim University of Applied Sciences has obtained a licence, or which have been purchased by the university in some other way. The Mediacentrum offers many of these publications via its databases.
When re-using or citing, it is compulsory to mention the source. For more information, see source citation in accordance with APA. Quoting without acknowledgement of the source is called plagiarism and is punishable by law.
When you produce a thesis or other product, you are the creator and therefore have the copyright, unless otherwise agreed. Do you create a work together with others? Then everyone has this right together. You do not have to do anything to obtain copyright protection.
For more information, refer to the Publishing section on our website.
Copyright beside and after your studies
During your studies, you may make use all regulations and purchases that the university has made concerning copyright. If you start your own business during your studies, you are personally responsible for everything concerning copyright. If you do an internship, you will make use of the rights that the company or institution you intern with has arranged. After your studies you make use of whatever your employer has arranged in the area of copyright. If an organisation or company has not made any arrangements, you will have to purchase everything you use in order to avoid a fine. And don't forget that you always (whether you paid for it or not) have to cite sources according to APA rules.
Much information about Dutch copyright regulations for entrepreneurs can be found on business.gov.nl(opens in new tab).
Creative Commons (CC) is an organisation that has developed a number of copyright licences, which allow a creator to give others permission in advance and without payment to re-use his work, both to copy it and to make it public. If a work has a Creative Commons licence, you can see immediately under what conditions you can use it without asking permission. You can find more information at creativecommons.org(opens in new tab).
When you search using openverse(opens in new tab), you search for (re)useable information under CC licenses.
In addition, there are two other possibilities in which the rights holder indicates that he waives his copyright or that the copyright has expired. These are the CC0 public domain dedication(opens in new tab) and the Public Domain Mark(opens in new tab).
Regardless of the licence, you should always cite your sources according to APA guidelines.
It is best to use self-made pictures and photos.
You do have the copyright for self-made photos that include people, but not the portrait right. Portrait rights give the persons in the photo the right to forbid publication. You have to ask these persons for permission to publish. If you use an image or photo that someone else has made, you will always have to ask permission.
At Pictoright(opens in new tab) you can arrange copyrights for (re)using images.
If you do not want to incur any costs, you can use Britannica ImageQuest(opens in new tab), a database with millions of photos Windesheim has a licence to. You can also use a website like Unsplash(opens in new tab).
If you do have permission, do not forget to mention the source, even if it is a Powerpoint. Mentioning the source is always necessary, it makes no difference whether the image is free or you have paid for it.
Portrait right is the right of a portrayed person to oppose the publication of his portrait in certain cases.
Dutch law distinguishes between two types of portraits: commissioned and non-commissioned. A commissioned portrait may only be published with the consent of all those portrayed. A non-commissioned portrait may, in principle, be published without permission, although any portrayed person may object.
For portraits not commissioned by the person(s) portrayed, prior permission is only required in the following cases:
- If famous people are in the portrait.
- If children are in the portrait.
- If the portrait is used for 'unique or special' purposes. Think of the production of brochures and promotional materials.
- If it is not in line with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
The following additionally applies to schools: If persons from outside the school are in the portrait.
(Re)using audio and music
If you want to (re)use music in your publication, you have to arrange this with both Buma/Stemra(opens in new tab) and Sena(opens in new tab). This also applies to the situation where you include a film fragment in your video in which music can be heard.
You can also (re)use music for which no additional permission is needed. For example, the 'library music' that Buma Stemra facilitates. Or you can choose music from sites with free-to-use music, such as YouTube's Audio Library(opens in new tab), CCMixter(opens in new tab) or the Open Music Archive(opens in new tab).
Always make sure to cite the source according to APA guidelines.
- Copyright, what was that again?
Plagiarism is the complete or partial copying of another person's work (for example, a text, image or idea) without acknowledgement of the source, whereby the author pretends, intentionally or unintentionally, to be the original author. It is intellectual theft and is considered fraud. The copying of one's own earlier work is also only allowed with acknowledgement of the source.
To prevent unintentional plagiarism, you should properly cite the source when using the work of others. You can find out how to do this on the page about citation in accordance with the APA guidelines.
SURF has summarised all the information needed by universities considering the permissible reuse of material in the Quick reference guide on plagiarism(opens in new tab).
In order to prevent plagiarism, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences uses Ouriginal. This online programme serves as an aid in assessing the authenticity of submitted works. Work that has been made by someone else is easily discovered with this programme.
If you have any questions, please send an e-mail to AIP@windesheim.nl(opens in new tab).
Windesheim supports the open access principle whereby theses, teaching materials, professional publications and research publications are made freely accessible to society and may be reused. The Executive Board has therefore adopted the Publication Guidelines in 2014. This regulates how Windesheim handles its own (research) publications and that processes are facilitated.
You have graduated from Windesheim and would like to share your thesis via the HBO Kennisbank. Below you will find answers to the most frequently asked questions.
Is your question not included? Please contact Esther Eisen-Tijssen(opens in new tab).
Send your thesis to the Mediacentrum via the submission form(opens in new tab).
Why should I have my thesis included in the HBO Kennisbank?
Firstly, you do this for yourself. You can always find it easily and you have a link to the document that you can share on social media pages. This increases your visibility as a professional for (future) employers. Your thesis becomes your business card.
Furthermore, in this way you can contribute to the development of the Zwolle region, for example, because policy makers and entrepreneurs can build on your knowledge and you can be quoted. This thesis(opens in new tab), for example, was quoted in a UN report.
What do I need to do to have my thesis included in the HBO Kennisbank?
The company or institution you graduated with (the "client") has to agree to the publication of your thesis. If you have written your thesis together with another student, he or she must also give permission.
Next, you prepare a publication version of your thesis. You should remove all confidential and privacy-sensitive information because the information must not be traceable to individuals. Make agreements with your client about how far you need to go in this process. For example, your client may prefer not to have his name included.
The publication version should ideally only contain images you have created yourself or for which you have permission to reuse them, such as royalty-free images.
Then you can upload your thesis via this submission form(opens in new tab).
Will I remain the owner of my thesis?
Yes. The copyright rests with you and not with the university of applied sciences or the client. However, you can make agreements about this with your client. It sometimes happens that the client wants to publish the assignment in book form. If you are happy with that, of course that's possible.
Here is an example(opens in new tab) (in Dutch).
What can other people do with my thesis?
Your thesis is published under a so-called Creative Commons licence. This means that you give others permission in advance to share, edit and adapt your thesis. They do have to mention your name. If they want to use your thesis for commercial purposes, they have to ask you for permission. It is therefore useful to let us know your social media page or other contact information, which will be shown on the HBO Kennisbank (you can do this via the submission form).
My imprint says 'all rights reserved'. Is that correct?
No, that is not correct. Replace 'all rights reserved' with:
This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 - non-commercial - International License.
This means that the knowledge from this publication may be re-used as a basis for the development of new knowledge provided that the name of the author is mentioned and that this is done for non-commercial purposes. In case of doubt, or commercial reuse, please contact the author via (insert your e-mail address or link to your LinkedIn profile here).
For how long will my thesis be on HBO Kennisbank?
Please send us a message if you want your thesis removed from HBO Kennisbank for any reason. We will then remove it. We will also do this if, for example, the client informs us that they no longer wish to be found in this way. Naturally, we will try to inform you in such situations.
- My client does not agree to publication because the thesis contains confidential information. What do I do now?
Open access publishing
You have spent a lot of time researching and writing your thesis. You are proud of the result and would like to share it with others.
The Mediacentrum of Windesheim University of Applied Sciences offers you the opportunity to publish your thesis by having it included in the HBO Kennisbank. In this manner, you can also refer to it from your Facebook or Linkedin page.
Open access publishing means that anyone can read, copy, distribute, print, edit and reuse your thesis, article or other piece of work, provided that your name is mentioned as the author.
Advantages of open access publishing
Open access publishing offers a number of advantages:
- Recruiters search social media and databases where theses are published to find suitable candidates to fill a vacancy. This makes your thesis your calling card;
- Other organisations can learn from your findings;
- When you have recommended further research, other students can take this up again.
When you publish in open access, anyone can read your texts and view and reuse your images. This includes the writers or photographers whose text and images you have used in your work and who maintain their copyrights. If you have not covered the copyright properly, you can get into trouble with the original copyright holders. For example, you may receive a bill for using their photo. To avoid bills and other problems, your thesis must comply with the following requirements:
- Do you use texts or visual material from others? Then arrange permission with the copyright holder(s) to put your paper on the internet;
- Cite and mention your sources according to the APA guidelines;
- What may others do with your thesis? Usually, a Creative Commons licence is used. This means that you give permission in advance to share and edit your thesis on the condition that others mention your name, and that others are not allowed to use your work commercially. For other uses, they have to ask you for permission. Take special care if in your thesis/dissertation you have used texts or images of others with a CC licence. You must then also comply with the conditions of that CC licence;
- Have you received permission from the company or organisation where you wrote your thesis to publish in open access? Once you have made arrangements (or signed an agreement), can you publish in open access? Not all organisations give this approval;
- Remove all privacy-sensitive data from your thesis, e.g. names, telephone numbers and e-mail addresses;
- Make sure that others can find your thesis easily. If you want, include your own contact details in the thesis and also mention the name of Windesheim University of Applied Sciences.
Have your work reviewed by the Mediacentrum
If you have gone through the checklist, you can also let us perform an additional check your thesis for copyright issues. Send your thesis or article to email@example.com(opens in new tab).
We will check your thesis and you will receive it back, with any remarks about copyrights, after 1 week. However, you remain responsible for your thesis or article.
- Open access publishing
You are a staff member at Windesheim and you have written a publication that you would like to share with a wider audience, and/or the research financier requires open access. You can do this by having your publication included in the HBO Kennisbank(opens in new tab).
Below you will find answers to the most frequently asked questions about open access publishing and the HBO Kennisbank. Is your question not answered here? Please contact Esther Eisen-Tijssen(opens in new tab).
Send your publication to the Mediacentrum for inclusion in the HBO Kennisbank by using the form below.
What is open access publishing?
When you publish in open access, your publication is freely accessible to society. This means that if someone wants to download the publication, no barriers are put in their way (such as providing personal data) and they do not have to pay for it. Furthermore, you give the user prior permission to reuse the publication. The person who reuses the publication is obliged to properly acknowledge the source.
I want to publish open access in a scientific journal. How do I know which journals are open access?
The Directory of Open Access Journals(opens in new tab) provides an overview of reliable scientific journals.
On the Sherpa/Romeo site(opens in new tab) you can find out what the publisher's policy is on copyright and local archiving.
Why do I have to pay for open access publishing with scientific publishers?
For publishers, open access publishing involves a different revenue model. The costs of publishing are borne by the author instead of the subscribers. There are also open access journals where institutions/subscribers pay so that no publication costs are charged to the author.
Who pays the authors publication fee of a scientific journal?
You can include an item 'open access publishing' in the grant application for your research project. The amounts that journals charge vary from € 500 to sometimes thousands of euros. Consider in advance how many articles you are going to publish and in which journal(s), so that you can budget appropriately.
If your research is already in progress and you have not budgeted for this item, the fee must be paid for from your division's budget. Within Windesheim, there are no separate funds to cover these costs.
I have no funding for open access publishing. What do I do now?
The Dutch Copyright Act states that you may publish articles on publicly funded research in e.g. the HBO Kennisbank, on the Windesheim website or on your own website within a reasonable period of time. You need to make agreements with your publisher about this. The Copyright Information Point(opens in new tab) can help you with this.
I publish in a professional journal, is this also open access?
Most journals only make articles available to their subscribers; this is their business model. This is therefore not open access.
If you have written the article yourself and it concerns research financed with public funds, you are allowed to publish it within a reasonable period of time according to the Dutch Copyright Act. This is possible on the Windesheim website, the HBO Kennisbank and on your own website. You will need to make agreements with the publisher about this. The Copyright Information Point(opens in new tab) can help you with this.
Why should I have my publication included in the HBO Kennisbank?
Firstly, you are doing this for yourself. Your publication will be stored for a long time, so that it is always easy to find. Websites of research projects disappear after some time and the Windesheim website has no long time storage function.
You also increase your visibility on the internet because the HBO Kennisbank serves as a source for other websites such as the research portal NARCIS, and in the future for the platform for applied research.
Furthermore, research financiers such as Regieorgaan SIA and ZonMW stipulate in their conditions that you must publish in open access. By including your publication in the HBO Kennisbank, you are complying with this condition.
And last but not least, remember that for you as a researcher your publication is the end point, but for policymakers/entrepreneurs it is the starting point. Consolidate your knowledge by sharing it!
Which publications will the Mediacentrum include in the HBO Kennisbank?
Examples are research reports, scientific articles, articles in professional journals, contributions to conferences (e.g. lectures, chapters in conference proceedings), videos. For all publications, a Windesheim researcher must be (co-)author/maker.
An interview with a researcher by, for example, the Volkskrant is not included; it should concern the researchers' own work.
What do I need to arrange to include my publication in the HBO Kennisbank?
- Nothing, if you have published in an open access journal or if it is your own Windesheim publication;
- For professional journals and scientific journals, you should ask after which period the article can be made public. Do this by e-mail so that you can keep the agreement as proof. In the case of journals, it may also be necessary to ask for a pdf of the final version such as it appeared in the journal. You have the right to publish the article, provided the journal is acknowledged as the source. This is regulated in the Dutch Copyright Act.
- If you wish to publish a chapter from a book, you must make arrangements with the publisher beforehand, since he must also grant permission;
- Co-authors from outside Windesheim must give permission. It is best to arrange this in the early stages of the research. If you have not done so, you can of course do so at the time of writing an article. You do not need permission if open access publication is a condition of the research funder, but it is still wise to make agreements about this with co-authors beforehand.
If you have any questions about this, please contact the Copyright Information Point(opens in new tab).
- Nothing, if you have published in an open access journal or if it is your own Windesheim publication;
My imprint says 'all rights reserved'/'©'. Is that correct?
No, that is not correct. Replace 'all rights reserved'/'© with:
This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 - International License.
This means that the knowledge in this publication may be reused as a basis for the development of new knowledge provided that the author's name is mentioned. We would like to hear from you what you are re-using the publication for. This helps us to understand the impact of our research. You can contact the author via (fill in your email address or link to your LinkedIn profile).
You can find the logo of the Creative Commons licence and the link to the downloads in the submission form(opens in new tab).
I have made a video. Can I upload it to the HBO Kennisbank?
Yes, you can, please! You have to upload the video to Mediasite(opens in new tab), Windesheim's Mediaportal. In the settings, you have to indicate that the video should be publicly accessible. You can then send the link to the Mediacentrum using the submission form(opens in new tab).
Please note that if you use music/images etc. made by others, you must have permission from the maker(s) to reuse them. If in doubt, contact the Copyright Information Point(opens in new tab).
- Open access
Request an ISBN
For official (digital) publications of Windesheim, you can request an ISBN (an International Standard Book Number) through the Mediacentrum. By applying for an ISBN, it is possible for interested parties to order your publication from a bookshop. Below you will find the answers to the most frequently asked questions about ISBN. Is your question not included? Please contact Esther Eisen-Tijssen(opens in new tab).
What is an ISBN?
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique title identifier used worldwide to store data on books and related products in the computers of libraries, wholesalers, importers, distributors and booksellers. The purpose of the ISBN is to ensure that any title published by a publisher can be found quickly and easily in databases.
When should I request an ISBN?
You can apply for an ISBN for a research report or (e)book (not for an article) of which Windesheim is the publisher. This way, you turn it into an official publication that can be found by bookshops and is included in the e-repository of the KB, the National Library of the Netherlands. This will increase its exposure. You are obliged to have this publication included in the HBO Kennisbank because the National Library of the Netherlands uses the HBO Kennisbank as the source file for their repository.
How do I request an ISBN?
You do this using the same form you use to submit publications for inclusion in the HBO Kennisbank. This form contains a separate section for the ISBN request. The data you fill in will be saved when you send in the form. Subsequently, you will receive the ISBN from the Mediacentrum, which you can put in the imprint of the publication. You can then reopen the form and upload the final version of the publication.
I can only enter 3 authors in the ISBN application while more have worked on it. Why? And what should I do now?
In the ISBN register, only the first three authors are included. The first one you enter is the lead author. Preferably this is a researcher of Windesheim.
The order of the authors is important when the publication is cited. This has to do with the guidelines for source citation. For example, Windesheim students must do this according to APA. Scientific journals often use other guidelines.
What should I do when a book vendor asks for my publication?
The book vendor should contact the Mediacentrum. The Mediacentrum will send the direct link to the publication in the HBO Kennisbank to the book vendor free of charge. The customer can print the publication himself.
- Request an ISBN
Call the Mediacentrum
088 - 469 92 17
Mondays to Thursdays 8am - 8pm, Fridays 8am - 5pm
Call Multimedia Producties
088 - 469 92 22
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